The territory of Indonesia at independence embraced the former area of Dutch East Indies based on provision in Territoriale Zee En Mariteme Kringen Ordonantie in 1939 about Indonesian Territorial Sea Boundaries. It defined that the territorial sea boundaries as far as 3 miles from shore when the beach at low tide with the principle of island by island separately. So it means, if the distance between one island to another more than 6 miles so that will be high seas and this certainly not suitable with the importance of Indonesian safety and security.
In December 13rd 1957 released Juanda Declaration as a replacement for the ordinance in 1939 with these purposes:
1. The realization of the whole territory of Indonesia.
2. The decisions of national borders correspond with the archipelagic state principles.
3. Shipping traffic regulation which more guarantee Indonesian safety and security.
Since Juanda Declaration released, there’s a amendment of national territory, wide of the territorial sea measured as far as 12 miles from the outermost islands which is interrelated. Thus, Indonesian territory nowadays is one whole territory where all the seas between the archipelago’s island became Indonesian’s territorial sea. Then, the area of Indonesian territorial for the beginning just like 2 millions kilo meters, but now it expands to more than 5 millions kilo meters.
In February 17th 1969 released Declaration of Indonesian Continental Shelf which is the political concept based on territorial concept. This declaration as an effort to validate the archipelago insight and also as an effort to realize the Article 33 Paragraph 3 in constitution which contains ‘Earth, water, and all the natural richness contained inside of it controlled by the state and used as much as possible for the prosperity. The consequence is that all the natural richness inside of the Indonesian continent is officially belong to Indonesia. So Indonesia has the right to develop and explore all the natural richness to increase the Indonesian people prosperity.
The continental shelf of a country according to the United Nation’s convention about sea law in 1982 or United Nation Convention on The Law of The Sea embraced seabed and subsoil which located in outside of the territorial sea is a natural continuation of its land area. The distance is 200 miles from sea baseline or it could be more than 200 miles but less than 350 miles or can’t be more than 100 miles from the depth of seabed boundary in 2500 meters.
In March 21st 1980 released Declaration of Exclusive Economic Zone. The reasons why the government released the declaration because of the fish stock is diminishing, related to the need of national development in Indonesia because in that time the government declared the five year development plans, beside that Exclusive Economic Zone also has an international law power so it could help the safety and security of the territorial seas in Indonesia. After it, the constitution defined the regulation about Exclusive Economic Zone, nowadays the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary is width of 200 miles which is counted from the sea baseline of Indonesian sea territory.
Note: The picture is taken from www.google.com